In the following pages, we examine cases of foreign interference in Asia, using a proposed framework to show the interplay between foreign interference, foreign influence, soft power, and hostile information campaigns. The cases are broadly categorised by tactics, including covert funding of politicians, parties, officials, influential persons, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and media; cyberattacks, and hostile information campaigns. The cases are taken from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Australia.
We conclude that since there is a spectrum from open and legitimate influence to deceptive and illegitimate interference, it is necessary for states to clearly define the red lines which foreign entities must not cross in another state’s domestic politics. States need to monitor and prevent said red lines from being crossed; and take effective countermeasures when foreign interference occurs.
Related Policy Reports:
Conflict and Stability / Country and Region Studies / Cybersecurity, Biosecurity and Nuclear Safety / East Asia and Asia Pacific / General / Global / International Politics and Security / Policy Reports / Singapore and Homeland Security / Southeast Asia and ASEAN
Last updated on 06/05/2020