The challenges to remove Non-Tariff-Barriers (NTBs) in ASEAN are both technical and political. Despite having committed to full removal of NTBs by 2015, ASEAN had totally missed the target and is still struggling to tackle the various trade barriers which are on the rise. Will the rise of protectionism further put pressure against the political will to commit to the liberalisation agenda? What does it take to make trade truly free in ASEAN? Why did intra-ASEAN trade stagnate despite the removal of tariffs?