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- Areas of Expertise
- Professional Activities
- RSIS Publications
- External Publications
- Teaching Modules
Dr. Pradumna B. Rana is Visiting Associate Professor at the Centre for Multilateralism Studies of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU). Prior to this, he worked for 25 years at the Asian Development Bank. His last appointment at the ADB was Senior Director of the Office of Regional Economic Integration which spearheads the ADB’s support for Asian economic integration. He obtained his PhD from Vanderbilt University where he was a Fulbright Scholar and a Masters in Economics from Michigan State University and Tribhuvan University. He has authored/edited 20 books, and published over 55 articles in peer-reviewed international academic journals.
Rana recently co-authored books on China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Impacts on Asia and Policy Agenda (Palgrave Macmillan 2020), Jump-starting South Asia: Round Two of Reforms and Look East Policies (Oxford, University Press 2018), Asia and the Global Economic Crisis (Palgrave Macmillan 2010), and South Asia: Rising to the Challenge of Globalization (World Scientific Publishers 2009). He edited a book entitled The Renaissance of Asia: Evolving Economic Relations between South Asia and East Asia (World Scientific Publishers 2012), and co-edited books on Global Shocks and the New Global and Regional Financial Architecture (ADB Institute 2018), and New Global Economic Architecture: The Asian Perspective (Edward Elgar 2014).
Rana has published widely in internationally reputed journals such as the Journal of International Economics, The Review of Economic and Statistics, Journal of Development Economics, World Development, International Trade Journal, Journal of Asian Economics, Singapore Economic Review, East Asian Economic Review, Global Governance, and Global Policy.
Areas of Expertise
- Regional Economic Integration
- Economic Relations between South and East Asia
- Global Economic Governance
- Global Financial Architecture
- Senior Research Fellow, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore
- Visiting Associate Professor (Senior Fellow), Division of Economics, NTU, July 2007-May 2009
- Referee experience (Singapore Economic Review , Oxford Economic Papers, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of International Economics, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Malaysian Economic Review, International Economic Journal
Global Shocks and the New Global and Regional Financial Architecture: Asian Perspectives
21 May, 2018
Global Shocks and the New Global and Regional Financial Architecture: Asian Perspectives
21 May, 2018
China’s Belt and Road Initiative: A Perception Survey of Asian Opinion Leaders
25 November, 2019
WP308 | Trade Policy Options for ASEAN Countries and Their Regional Dialogue Partners: “Preference Ordering” Using CGE Analysis
19 March, 2018
WP299 | Economic and Strategic Dimensions of Mega-FTAs: A Perception Survey of Asian Opinion Leaders
09 December, 2016
WP289 | Economic Policy Reforms in South Asia: An Overview and the Remaining Agenda
18 March, 2015
WP274 | The Revival of the Silk Roads (Land Connectivity) in Asia
12 May, 2014
WP272 | Economic Integration between South Asia and East Asia: A Perception Survey of Asian Opinion Leaders
17 April, 2014
WP254 | The Eurozone Crisis and Its Impact on Asia
06 February, 2013
WP253 | Strengthening Economic Linkages between South Asia and East Asia:The Case for a Second Round of "Look East" Policies
17 January, 2013
WP238 | The Evolving Multi-layered Global Financial Safety Net: Role of Asia
16 May, 2012
WP228 | Monetary Integration in ASEAN+3: A Perception Survey of Opinion Leaders
03 June, 2011
WP215 | Evolving Global Economic Architecture: Will We have a New Bretton Woods?
22 November, 2010
WP201 | Future of U.S. Power: Is China Going to Eclipse the United States?Two Possible Scenarios to 2040
09 June, 2010
Brexit and its Aftermath: Impacts and Policy Recommendations for Asia
28 December, 2016
New Global Economic Architecture: An Asian Perspective
22 April, 2016
Is the G20 Breaking Up?
08 November, 2021
South Asia’s Trade Policy: Adopt East Asian Approach
22 October, 2021
G7’s ‘Build Back Better World’: Rival to China’s BRI?
14 July, 2021
State of the World Economy - COVID-19 and Its Impact: Is Globalisation Dead?
20 April, 2021
BRI's 'Debt Trap Diplomacy': Reality or Myth?
04 November, 2020
Need for Reset: Modi’s Cross-Border Connectivity Policy
08 October, 2020
Trade Multilateralism: Alive and Well Despite Trump
20 July, 2020
Global Health Security: COVID-19 and Its Impacts - Reviving Stalled BRI: China’s Two-Stage Approach
05 May, 2020
Global Health Security - Covid-19: Time for Emergency G20 Summit
24 March, 2020
RCEP15 Without India: Why Still Big Step Forward
13 November, 2019
Osaka G20 Summit: Mixed Outcome
11 July, 2019
Belt and Road Forum 2019: BRI 2.0 In The Making?
02 May, 2019
CPTPP: New Key Player in International Trade
18 January, 2019
Institutions for Asian Development Finance: Growing Competition or Complementarity?
03 January, 2019
G20 at Ten: Time For Greater Multilateral Role
03 December, 2018
CO18099 | Trump’s Trade War: How should Asia Respond?
19 June, 2018
CO18061 | Rising Protectionism in US: Asia-Pacific’s Response
03 April, 2018
CO17219 | TPP’s Resurrection: Will It Be Finally Ratified?
17 November, 2017
CO17181 | Modi’s Economic Reforms: On-Track?
29 September, 2017
CO17128 | ASEAN+3 Regional Financial Safety Net and IMF: Time for Structured Cooperation
03 July, 2017
CO17029 | TPP12 vs TPP11: Gainers and Losers
15 February, 2017
CO17012 | Modi’s Demonetisation Gamble
13 January, 2017
CO16246 | Jump-starting Economic Integration in South Asia: A Multi-pronged Approach
05 October, 2016
CO16243 | Indian Ocean: Re-energising Trade Integration in IORA
03 October, 2016
CO16159 | Brexit and Its Aftermath - Brexit’s Impact on Asia
27 June, 2016
CO16144 | ASEAN+3 Financial Cooperation and AIIB: Next Steps Forward
14 June, 2016
CO15184 | US-led vs China-led Institutions: Need for New Bretton Woods
27 August, 2015
CO15150 | Will Greece exit from the Eurozone?
10 July, 2015
CO15112 | Nepal Earthquake: Could a Stronger and more Scenic Country Emerge?
11 May, 2015
CO15073 | Economic Legacy of Lee Kuan Yew: Lessons for Aspiring Countries
31 March, 2015
CO14241 | If SAARC Stumbles: Go for Sub-regional Alternatives
03 December, 2014
CO14155 | Has Global Finance Finally Been Tamed?
04 August, 2014
CO14154 | China’s Proposals for Trans-Himalayan Connectivity: Consider Four Economic Corridors
01 August, 2014
CO14147 | U.S.-led vs. China-led Economic Architecture: Case for a new Bretton Woods?
24 July, 2014
CO13196 | Reforming the Global Financial Architecture: Is the World a Safer Place?
21 October, 2013
CO13066 | Connectivity in Asia: Reviving the Old Silk Road?
17 April, 2013
CO13047 | LEP2: Phase Two of South Asia's "Look East" Policies?
21 March, 2013
CO12190 | IMF/World Bank Tokyo Meeting: No major outcome expected
09 October, 2012
CO12172 | Eurozone Crisis: Will Reforms be Enough?
13 September, 2012
CO12096 | Towards a Region-wide FTA in Asia: Whither the Trilateral FTA
11 June, 2012
CO12083 | Monetary Integration in ASEAN+3: The Next Steps
17 May, 2012
CO11165 | East Asia Summit: Streamlining the Regional Architecture?
14 November, 2011
CO11152 | Cannes Summit: Make G20 Plus Transparent
19 October, 2011
CO11135 | Should the BRICs bail out Europe?
27 September, 2011
CO11084 | IMF: Next Head will not be from Asia
23 May, 2011
CO11079 | Asian Monetary Fund: Getting Nearer
13 May, 2011
CO10137 | Seoul G20 Summit: Will it Adopt Singapore’s 3G Ideas?
29 October, 2010
CO10065 | G20 Summit: How Asia Can Strengthen its Voice
18 June, 2010
ADBI/RSIS Conference Report: Trade in Value-added, Global Value Chains and Development Strategy
08 May, 2014
ADBI/RSIS Conference Report on "Integrating Domestic Industries with Global Production Networks and Supply Chains"
10 May, 2013
Workshop Report on "Sharing Asian Experiences: Promoting FDI Effectively"
10 October, 2012
ADBI/RSIS Conference Report on "The Evolving Global Architecture: From a Centralised to a Decentralised System"
27 March, 2012
Conference Report on "Regional Economic Integration: Sharing Asian Experiences"
18 February, 2011
Commemorative / Event Reports
- China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Impacts on Asia and Policy Agenda (with Ji Xianbai). Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020
- Jumpstarting South Asia: Revisiting Economic Reforms and Look East Policies (with Wai-Mun Chia). : Oxford University Press, 2017
- Asia and the Global Economic Crisis: Challenges in a Financially Integrated World
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Malcolm J. Dowling. South Asia- Rising to the Challenge of Globalization. Singapore: World Scientific, 2009.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Reforms in Bangladesh: A Comparative Assessment in Relation to Other South Asian Countries,” in The Bangladesh Economy in Transition, edited by M.G. Quibria. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Florian Alburo. Economic Stabilization in the ASEAN Countries. Singapore: ISEAS, 1987.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: Bangladesh. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 1986.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. The Impact of Generalized Floating on Trade Flows and Reserve Needs: Selected Asian Developing Countries. New York: Garland, 1983.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. ASEAN Exchange Rates: Policies and Trade Effects. Singapore: ISEAS, 1981.
- “A Deal That Does Not Die: The United States and the Rise, Fall and Future of the (CP)TPP*” (with Jason Ji Xianbai) in Pacific Focus, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2019. pp. 230-255
- “Rise of Complementarity between Global and Regional Financial Institutions: Perspectives from Asia” (with Ramon Pacheco Pardo) in Global Policy, Vol. 9, Issue 2, 2018. pp. 231-243
- “Co-operation Not Competition: The New Multilateral Development Banks and the Old” (with R. P. Pardo) in GlobalAsia, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2018. p. 1
- “Catalyst of Business Cycle Synchronization in East Asia” in Singapore Economic Review
- “ASEAN’s Long Term Economic Potential and Vision” in Singapore Economic Review
- Pardo, Ramon Pacheco and Pradumna B. Rana, "Complementarity Between Regional and Global Financial Governance Institutions: The Case of ASEAN+3 and the Global Financial Safety Net" Global Governance, No 21 (2015): 413-433.
- Rana, Pradumna B and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, "ASEAN+3 and the IMF: The Need for a Marriage of Convenience," Global Asia 10, No 1 (2015): 64-71.
- “Net Foreign Assets and Macroeconomic Volatility” in Journal of Asian Economics
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Chia Wai Mun. “South Asia Needs Phase Two of “Look-East” Policies”. Economic and Political Weekly48 (2013): 21-23.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, Tianjin Cheng and Chia Wai Mun. "Trade Intensity and Business Cycle Synchronization: East Asia versus Europe”. Journal of Asian Economics, 23 (2012): 701-706.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. Reform Strategies in South Asia Countries: A Comparative Approach”. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research 1 (2011) : 96-107.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, Wai Mun Chia and Jinjarak Yothin.“ASEAN+3 Monetary Integration: Perception Survey of Opinion Leaders”. Journal of Asian Economics 23 (2012) 1-12.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Asian Economic Integration: Introduction and Editorial Overview”.Singapore Economic Review 55 (2010): 1-6.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Trade Intensity and Business Cycle Synchronization: The Case of East Asian Countries”. Singapore Economic Review 53 (2008): 279.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Economic Integration and Synchronization of Business Cycles in East Asia”. Journal of Asian Economics18 (2007): 711-725.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The East Asian Financial Crisis – Implications for Exchange Rate Management”. East Asian Perspectives (1999).
- “Reform Strategies in Transitional Economies: Lessons from Asia,” in World Development
- “Is There an Alternative to Big Bang Liberalization?” with in East Asian Economic Perspectives
- Rana, P. and Dowling, M., 1993. Big Bang’s Bust. The International Economy, 6.
- Rana, P.B., Dowling, J.M. & Verbiest, J.P. "Exchange Rate Experiences in Asian Economies: A Survey," in East Asian Economic Perspectives, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 1991.
- Pradumna B. Rana (1990) Shifting comparative advantage among asian and pacific countries, The International Trade Journal, 4:3, 243-258
- Rana, P.B., 1988. Exports, policy changes, and economic growth in developing countries after the 1973 oil shock: Comment. Journal of Development Economics, 28(2), pp.261-264.
- Rana, P.B. and Dowling, J.M., 1988. The impact of foreign capital on growth: evidences from Asian developing countries. The Developing Economies, 26(1), pp.3-11.
- Rana, P.B. "Foreign Capital, Exports, Savings and Growth in the Asian Region" Savings and Development Vol. 11, No. 1 (1987), pp. 5-27
- Pradumna, B. Rana, 1986. Exports and economic growth: further evidence from Asian LDCs. Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, 5(2), pp.163-178.
- Rana, P.B. and Dowling Jr, J.M., 1985. Inflationary effects of small but continuous changes in effective exchange rates: nine Asian LDCs. The Review of Economics and Statistics, pp.496-500.
- Rana, P.B., 1984. Inflationary Effects of Exchange Rate Changes: The Case of the ASEAN Countries, 1973—79. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 1(1), pp.26-42.
- Rana, P.B., 1984. Fixed versus flexible exchange rates and measurement of exchange rate instability: Comment. Journal of International Economics, 16(3-4), pp.307-310.
- Rana, P.B. "Exchange Rates and Prices - Causal or Equilibrium Relationship? Cases of Malaysia and Singapore, 1971-1979," Kajian Ekonomi – Malaysia: Vol. 11, No. 4, November 1981.
- Rana, P.B., 1981. Exchange rate risk under generalized floating: Eight Asian countries. Journal of International Economics, 11(4), pp.459-466.
- Rana, P.B. "The Effects of Exchange Rate Variability on Import Volumes: Cases of S. Korea, Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand", South East Asian Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 1981.
Edited Books / Special Issues
- Global Shocks and the New Global and Regional Financial Architecture (with N. Yoshino , and P. Morgan), Eds. : Asian Development Bank and S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, 2018
- New Global Economic Architecture: The Asian Perspective
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, ed. Renaissance of Asia: Evolving Economic Linkages between South Asia and East Asia.Singapore: World Scientific, 2012.
- Rana, Praduman Bickram ed. Singapore Economic Review Special Issue on Asian Economic Integration. Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, 2010.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, et al, ed. National Strategies for Regional Integration: South and East Asian Cases. London: Anthem Press, 2009
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, et al, ed. Pan-Asian Integration: Linking East and South Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009
- Asian Development Bank. Economic Cooperation and Integration in East Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2005.
- Asian Development Bank. Early Warning Systems for Financial Crises: Applications to East Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2005.
- Asian Development Bank. Monetary and Financial Integration in East Asia: The Way Ahead. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2004.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram, et al, ed. Addressing the Urban Poverty Agenda in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Dhaka University Press, 1997
- Rana, Praduman Bickram and Naved Hamid, eds. From Centrally Planned to Market Economies: The Asian Approach Volume 1: Overview. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Rana, Praduman Bickram and Naved Hamid, eds. From Centrally Planned to Market Economies: The Asian Approach Volume 2: China and Mongolia. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Rana, Praduman Bickram and Naved Hamid, eds. From Centrally Planned to Market Economies: The Asian Approach Volume 3: Lao PDR, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Asian Development Bank. Mongolia: A Centrally Planned Economy in Transition. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 1993
- Asian Development Bank. Export Finance: Some Asian Examples.Manila: Asian Development Bank, 1990
Chapters in Edited Books
- “Nepal – A Connectivity-driven Development Strategy” in Connecting Asia
- “The Eurozone Crisis: Perspectives from and Impacts on Asia” in The Eurozone Crisis and the Future of Europe
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Economic Integration in Asia: The Case of ASEAN+3” in The Sixteenth Singapore Economic Roundtable, edited by Manu Bhaskaran. Singapore: Straits Times Press, 2012.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Reform of the International Financial Architecture, the G20 and Asia” in Challenges for the Singapore Economy after the Global Financial Crisis, edited by Peter Wilson. Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2011.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Masahiro Kawai. The Asian Crisis Revisited: Lessons, Responses, and New Challenges” in Lessons from the Asian Financial Crisis edited by Richard Carney. Singapore: Routledge, 2011.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Malcolm J. Dowling. Asia and the Global Economic Crisis: Challenges in a Financially Integrated World. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “G20 Summits: How can Asia Collectively Strengthen its Voice?” in The G-20 Framework for Strong, Sustainable, and Balanced Growth, edited by Dirk Willem te Velde. London: Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
- Rana, Praduman Bickram. "The On-going Global Financial Crisis and Asian Regionalism” in Singapore and Asia: Impact of the Global Financial Tsunami and Other Economic Issues, edited by Chia Wai Mun and Sng Hui Ying. Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, 2009.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Asian Economic Integration: The Role of Singapore”, in Singapore and Asia in a Globalised World, edited by Chia Wai Mun and Sng Hui Ying. Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, 2008.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “East Asian Regionalism” in Regional Outlook Southeast Asia 2007-2008 edited by Asad-ul Iqbal Latif and Lee Poh Onn. Singapore: ISEAS, 2007.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Monetary and Financial Cooperation in East Asia: The Chiang Mai Initiative and Beyond," in Strengthening Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia, edited by Yoon Hyung Kim and Chang Jae Lee. Seoul: KIEP, 2004.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Monetary and Financial Cooperation in Asia." in Regional Public Goods: From Theory to Practice, edited by Antoni Estevadeordal, Brian Frantz, and Tam Robert Nguyen. Manila: ADB, 2004.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The View from Asia,” in Multilateralism and Regionalism in the Post-Uruguay Round Era: What Role for EU? Edited by Olga Memedovic, Arie Kuyvenhoven, and Willem T. M. Molle. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1999.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Private Capital Flows to Asian Developing Countries,” in Managing Capital Flows: National and International Dimensions. Manila: ADB, 1998.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. Comments on Mr. Ariel Buira’s paper on “Financial Crisis: Towards an Alternative Approach” in Regulatory and Supervisory Challenges in a New Era of Global Finance, edited by J.T. Teunissen. Amsterdam: FONDAD, 1998.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The Financial Crisis in East Asia,” in Asian Development Outlook. Manila: ADB, 1998.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and W. Paz. "Economies in Transition: The Asian Experience," in From Reform to Growth: China and Other Countries in Transition in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Chung H. Lee and Helmut Reisen. Paris: OECD< 1994.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "International Financial System and Asian Developing Countries" in Planning Financial Resources for Development (Proceedings of a U.N. Conference).New York: UN, 1990.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Growth, Trade and Money: Economics and Politics in the International Economic Order" in World Economic Order: Liberal Views, edited by R. Clapham and H. Klammer. Kehl, Strasbourg, Arlington: N.P. Engel, 1983.
- The Evolving Multilayered Global Financial Safety Net: The Case of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations+3 (ASEAN+3) Regional Financial Safety Net and the International Monetary Fund
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “From a Centralized to a Decentralized Global Economic Architecture: An Overview.” ADB Institute Working Paper Series No 401. ADBI, Tokyo, 2013.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Economic Integration in Asia: Trends and Policies.” ISAS Working Paper No. 93, NUS, Singapore, 2009.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The Integration and “Re-centering” of Asia- Historical and Contemporary Perspectives." ISAS Working Paper 86, NUS, Singapore, 2009.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Trade Intensity and Business Cycle Synchronization: The Case of East Asian Countries.” Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 10, ADB, Manila, 2007.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Economic Integration in East Asia: Trends, Prospects, and a Possible Roadmap.” Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 2, ADB,Manila, 2006.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Monetary and Financial Cooperation in East Asia: The Chiang Mai Initiative and Beyond." Asian Development Bank ERD Working Paper Series No. 6, ADB, Manila 2002.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram and Josef Yap. "Tracking East Asia's Recovery from the Capital Account Crisis: Analysis, Evidence and Policy Implication." Discussion Papers Series No. 2001-01, Philippine Institute of Development Economics, PIDS, Manila, 2001.
- “As SAARC drags its feet, South Asia should turn to sub-regionalism”, East Asia Forum
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Five Years after the Global Economic Crisis, the World is no Safer.” East Asia Forum, November 14, 2013.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The Need for a Second Round of “Look East” Policies in South Asia.” VoxEU.org, April 1, 2013.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "Misdiagnosing the Eurozone Crisis: Perspectives from Asia." VoxEU.org, September 22, 2012.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "A Region-wide FTA in Asia.” VoxEU.org, June 25, 2012.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. "The Next Steps in ASEAN+3 Monetary Integration." Vox.EU.org, May 27, 2012.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Moving Towards an Asian Monetary Fund.” VoxEU.org, May 20, 2011.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “How can Asia Strengthen its Voice at the G20.” East Asia Forum, June 29, 2010.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “The Re-emergence of a Prosperous and Integrated Asia”, East Asia Forum, December 5, 2009.
- Rana, Pradumna Bickram. “Reform of International Financial Architecture, G20, and Asia.” VoxEU.org, November 14, 2009.
- Guest Speaker, Tohuko University (Japan) Workshop on “Future of Liberal Global Order”, Japan, 1 December 2020
- Guest Speaker, Third Delhi Policy Group-RSIS Dialogue, 30 September 2020
- Guest Speaker, RSIS Dual Book Launch, 29 September 2020
- Guest Speaker, CMS Webinar on “COVID-19 and Global Economy”, 16 September 2020
Last updated on 01/07/2021