Dr Kumar Ramakrishna
Dr Kumar Ramakrishna
Following links control the content below
- Areas of Expertise
- Professional Activities
- RSIS Publications
- External Publications
- Teaching Modules
Kumar Ramakrishna is a tenured Associate Professor, Provost’s Chair in National Security Studies, Associate Dean in charge of Policy Studies, as well as Head of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS). Prior to this appointment he was Head, Centre of Excellence for National Security (CENS) in RSIS (2006-2015), and Head, National Security Studies Programme (NSSP) from 2016 to 2020. He remains as Research Adviser to NSSP. He obtained a First Class (Honors) in Political Science from the National University of Singapore in 1989 and a Masters in Defence Studies from the University of New South Wales in 1992. He went on to secure his PhD in History from Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, University of London, in 1999. His current research interests include British propaganda in the Malayan Emergency; propaganda theory and practice; history of strategic thought; and counter-terrorism with a focus on radicalization. He was an Asia Foundation (US) Freeman Fellow in June 2002 and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, Washington, D.C., from April to June 2003. He was an Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) Special Visitor in March 2003, and an International Visitor for the Australian Attorney-General’s Department in 2012. In 2008 he was appointed as a Senior Advisor to the Trusted Information Network on Extremism and Transnational Crime in Southeast Asia and Australia, a joint project of The Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington D.C., and The Lowy Institute for International Policy in Sydney, Australia. In July 2015 he served as a member of the External Reference Group for the United Nations Secretary-General’s draft Plan of Action for Preventing Violent Extremism. In “recognition of the international contribution” he has made to research into violent extremism, in January 2016 he was appointed as a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict, Oxford University, UK. In November 2020 he was appointed Visiting Professor at the Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University, also in the UK.
Ramakrishna has been a frequent speaker on counter-terrorism before local and international audiences, a regular media commentator on the issue and published in numerous internationally refereed journals. He has co-edited two well-received books on counter-terrorism, The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies (2002) as well as After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia (2004). His first major single-authored book, Emergency Propaganda: The Winning of Malayan Hearts and Minds, 1948-1958 (2002) was described by the International History Review as “required reading for historians of Malaya, and for those whose task is to counter insurgents, guerrillas, and-terrorists”. His most recent book, Radical Pathways: Understanding Muslim Radicalization in Indonesia (2009) was identified by Perspectives on Terrorism in May 2012 as one of the top 150 books on terrorism and counter-terrorism as well as “an important and insightful case study on the pathways to extremism and violent jihad in Indonesia”. His two most recent books are Islamist Terrorism and Militancy in Indonesia: The Power of the Manichean Mindset (2015), Original Sin? Revising the Revisionist Critique of the 1963 Operation Coldstore in Singapore (2015) and Singapore Chronicles: Emergency (2016).
Apart from serving on the international boards of a number of peer-reviewed scholarly journals, he has served as a member of the Singapore Government Parliamentary Committee (GPC) Resource Panel on Home Affairs and Law; the Board of Trustees, the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies-Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore, the Board of Governors of the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS) Academy, and the Executive Committee of the Political Science Association (Singapore). He has also been inducted into the Executive Boards of the Philippine Institute for Political Violence and Terrorism Research as well as the Council for Asian Transnational Threats Research, a US-led network of think tanks and research institutions engaged in terrorism and transnational threats research.
Areas of Expertise
- History of Strategic Thought
- Propaganda Theory
- Counter-insurgency Theory
- History of the Malayan Emergency (1948-60)
- Terrorist Motivations and Ideology
- Counter-terrorism Strategy
- Visiting Professor, Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University, UK (since 2020)
- Member, International Editorial Board, Studies in Contemporary Warfare, Book Series Editor Andrew Mumford, University of Nottingham, UK (IB Tauris/Bloomsbury – since 2020)
- Member, International Editorial Board, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs (SAGE – since 2018)
- External Examiner, Law and Criminology degree modules (Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights), University of East London, UK (since 2018)
- Member, International Advisory Board, Terrorism and Extremism Research Centre (TERC), University of East London, UK (2016-2018)
- Member, International Editorial Board Counter-Terrorist Trends and Analysis (International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, RSIS- since 2016)
- Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict, Harris Manchester College, Oxford University, U.K
- Member, International Advisory Board, Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counterterrorism
- Member, International Advisory Board, Philippine Institute of Political Violence and Terrorism Research
- Member, International Editorial Board, Security Journal (Palgrave Macmillan)
- Visiting Scholar, Center for International Security Studies, University of Sydney, May-Dec. 2011
- Visiting Scholar, National Security Studies Center, University of Haifa, Israel, from Jan. 17-21 2011
- Member, International Editorial Board, Jebat: Malaysian Journal of History, Politics and Strategic Studies (since May 2010)
- Member, International Board, Council for Asian Transnational Threats Research (CATR)
- Senior Advisor, Trusted Information Network on Radicalization and Extremism in Southeast Asia, coordinated by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington D.C. and The Lowy Institute Sydney, February – November 2008
- Member, Board of Governors, Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS) Academy
- Member, Board of Trustees, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore
- Member, Resource Panel, Singapore Government Parliamentary Committee for Law and Home Affairs
- Malaysian International Visitors’ Programme, Organized by Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia, 16-23 February 2004
- Exco. Member, Political Science Association of Singapore
- Visiting Research Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, Washington, D.C. (April to June 2003)
- Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) Special Visitor (March 2003)
- Asia Foundation Freeman Fellow (June 4-24 2002, USA)
Freedom News: The Untold Story of the Communist Underground Publication
01 August, 2008
After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia
23 December, 2003
The New Terrorism, Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies
30 June, 2002
WP202 | “Muscular” versus “Liberal” Secularism and the Religious Fundamentalist Challenge in Singapore
10 June, 2010
WP071 | “Constructing” The Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist: A Preliminary Inquiry
01 October, 2004
WP026 | 911, American Praetorian Unilateralism and the Impact on State-Society Relations in Southeast Asia
01 June, 2002
WP006 | ‘Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo’ as Justified, Executed and Mediated by NATO: Strategic Lessons for Singapore
01 July, 2000
The Growing Challenge of the Extreme Right
20 January, 2021
Global Health Security - War on COVID-19: More Than One Front
15 April, 2020
The Easter Sunday Attacks: Struggle for the Soul of Sri Lankan Muslims
03 May, 2019
The Advent of “CyWar”: Are We Ready?
21 January, 2019
CO18054 | Disinformation and Fake News: Old Wine in New Bottles
27 March, 2018
CO18009 | Abu Uqayl’s Video: What Does It Portend for 2018?
19 January, 2018
CO17189 | Winning the Battle of the Memes
10 October, 2017
CO17065 | Engaging Youth as a Bulwark Against ISIS Extremism
07 April, 2017
CO17054 | London March 2017: ISIS “Weaponisation of Everyday Life”
27 March, 2017
CO17023 | The Rise of Trump and Its Global Implications - “Radical Islamic Terrorism”: What’s in a Name?
07 February, 2017
CO16226 | 11 September 2016 - Remembering 9/11: Are We Any Safer Today?
09 September, 2016
CO16216 | Remembering SR Nathan - A Man For All Seasons
24 August, 2016
CO16187 | Islamic State’s Wilayah Philippines: Implications for Southeast Asia
21 July, 2016
CO16110 | The ISA Arrests: The Domestic Context in Bangladesh
12 May, 2016
CO16103 | The ISB Arrests: The Transnational Terrorist “Insider Threat”
05 May, 2016
CO023 | Religious Fundamentalism and Social Distancing: Cause for Concern?
01 February, 2016
CO16010 | The Jakarta Attacks: Coping with the ISIS Threat
20 January, 2016
CO15248 | The Paris Attacks: Ramping Up of ISIS “Indirect Strategy”?
17 November, 2015
C015166 | The Global Movement of Moderates: An Effective Counter to ISIS?
06 August, 2015
CO15086 | ‘Alternate’ Historians Post-LKY: The “Four Tactics of Mass Distraction”
09 April, 2015
CO15065 | Lee Kuan Yew: The ‘Engine’ That Was ‘Too Big for the Boat’
25 March, 2015
CO15036 | Revisiting Operation Coldstore: Deconstructing the “Original Sin”
23 February, 2015
CO14246 | Singapore’s Struggle Against CPM: What if the Barisan Sosialis Had Won?
12 December, 2014
CO14019 | Countering the Self-Radicalised Lone Wolf: A New Paradigm?
28 January, 2014
CO13191 | The Second Emergency (1968-1989): A Reassessment of CPM's Armed Revolution
10 October, 2013
CO13152 | Studying Southeast Asian Religious Conflicts: Bringing Back Religion
15 August, 2013
CO13145 | Non-Violent Extremism: The Case of Wirathu in Myanmar
02 August, 2013
CO13134 | Singapore-US Cooperation on Counterterrorism and National Security
19 July, 2013
CO13088 | From Global to Micro Jihad: Three Trends of Grassroots Terrorism
07 May, 2013
CO13079 | Lessons from Boston Bombings: Need for Strategic Creativity in Counter-Terrorism
29 April, 2013
CO13008 | The East Indonesia Mujahidin Commandos: New Faces, Same Ideology
17 January, 2013
CO12206 | The HASMI Network: Case of Cognitive Radicalism Turned Violent?
05 November, 2012
CO12192 | Ten Years After Bali: Rise of the Darul Islam Super-Organism
11 October, 2012
CO12177 | Global Protests against Anti-Islam Video: Impact on Security in Southeast Asia
20 September, 2012
CO12003 | Engaging Former JI Detainees in Countering Extremism: Can it Work?
04 January, 2012
CO11128 | The SMRT Security Breach: Strategic Implications in the Post 9/11 Era
06 September, 2011
CO11070 | Osama’s Demise: End of Al Qaeda?
03 May, 2011
CO10157 | The MSK Family Affair: Is Blood Thicker than Water?
24 November, 2010
CO10075 | Self-Radicalisation and the Awlaki Connection
06 July, 2010
CO08080 | That Million-Dollar MSK Bounty: Some Pointers from the Past
28 July, 2008
CO08048 | Malaysian Lessons for Singapore?
17 April, 2008
CO08024 | Mas Selamat Kastari’s Disappearing Act: Assessing the Fallout
03 March, 2008
CO07061 | Self-Radicalisation: The Case of Abdul Basheer Abdul Kader
11 June, 2007
CO06114 | The Future of Strategic Early Warning
23 October, 2006
CO06114 | The Future of Strategic Early Warning
23 October, 2006
CO06068 | Israel’s Response: A Strategic Misstep with Global Implications?
24 July, 2006
CO06039 | “Iconic Soft Targets”? Public Housing Estates, Terrorism and Social Resilience
24 May, 2006
CO06029 | Singapore’s Darwinian Imperative Survival in a Complex and Uncertain World
28 April, 2006
CO05034 | The US Military and Non-Conventional War: Is Firepower Cheaper than Manpower?
21 June, 2005
CO05029 | Religion, Terror and the Fundamentalist Mentality
02 June, 2005
CO04035 | Transnational Terrorism: A Clear and Present Danger
27 August, 2004
CO04017 | Democratisation of Hate: The spread of Al Qaedaism
19 May, 2004
CO02024 | The True Meaning Of Bali
23 October, 2002
CO02021 | Jemaah Islamiah: Aims, Motivations And Possible Counter-Strategies
02 October, 2002
CO02012 | Beware of pouring fuel on radical embers
05 September, 2002
CO02010 | ASEAN-US Cooperation to combat International terrorism: A more nuanced approach needed
29 August, 2002
CO02007 | Nine months after 911: American Perceptions of the war on terror at home and abroad, including Southeast Asia
01 August, 2002
Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses
- Singapore Chronicles – Emergency. Singapore: Straits Times Press, 2016
- Islamist Militancy and Terrorism in Indonesia: The Power of the Manichean Mindset. : Springer, 2015
- Original Sin? Revising the Revisionist Critique of the 1963 Operation Coldstore in Singapore. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2015
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Radical Pathways: Understanding Muslim Radicalization in Indonesia" (Westport and Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2009)
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Emergency Propaganda: The Winning of Malayan Hearts and Minds, 1948-1958" (Richmond: Curzon Press, 2002)
- “Understanding Myanmar’s Buddhist Extremists: Some Preliminary Musings” in New England Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 32, Issue 2, Article 4, 2020
- “Tarrant’s Last Laugh? The Spectre of White Supremacist Penetration of Western Security Forces” in Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Vol. 21, 2020
- “The 4M Way of Combating Violent Extremism: An Analysis” in New England Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 31, Issue 1, 2019, Article 9
- “Diagnosing ‘Extremism’: The Case of ‘Muscular’ Secularism in Singapore” in New England Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 11, Issue 1, 2018, pp. 26-47
- “The Radicalization of Abu Hamdie: Wider Lessons for the Ongoing Struggle Against Violent Extremism in Post-Marawi Mindanao” in Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 2018, pp. 111-128
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "The Growth of ISIS Extremism in Southeast Asia: Its Ideological and Cognitive Features—and Possible Policy Responses", New England Journal of Public Policy: Vol 29 : Issue 1 , Article 6, 2017, pp 1-22
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Reflections of a Reformed Jihadist: The Story of Wan Min Wan Mat" (Contemporary Southeast Asia V38/3, December 2016)
Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Years After the Bali Bombing.” AsiaViews, November 2012.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Radicalization into Violent Extremism”. SEARCCT’s Selection of Articles, Vol.3 (2012).
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “From Virtual to Violent: Preliminary Conceptual Explorations of Religious Radicalisation in Youth”. Youth and Terrorism: A Selection of Articles (2011): 1-14.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Four Mutations of Violent Muslim Extremism in Southeast Asia: Some Implications for a Cognitive Immunization Policy”. Asia Policy No. 12 (July 2011): 13-19.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. Review of No Man’s Land: Globalization, Territory, and Clandestine Groups in Southeast Asia by Justin V. Hastings. Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 33, No.1 (April 2011): 143-6.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Martyrdom, Galvanization and Restructuring: Understanding the Impact of Osama bin Laden’s Demise for the Evolving War on Terrorism”. The Indonesian Quarterly, Vol. 39 No. 2 (2011): 185-96.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Countering Al Qaeda as a ‘State of Mind’”. SEARCCT’s Selection of Articles Vol. 2, January 2011.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Countering Al Qaeda as a ‘State of Mind’”. SEARCCT’s Selection of Articles Vol 2, January 2011.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “‘Counter-Ideological’ Work in Singapore: A Preliminary Assessment”. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism, Vol. 4, No. 2 (October 2009): 41-51.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. Review of Malaya’s Secret Police 1945-60: The Role of the Special Branch in the Malayan Emergency, by Leon Comber. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 3 (2009): 557-559.
Ramakrishna, Kumar. “A Holistic Critique of Singapore’s Counter-Ideological Program”. CTC Sentinel, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (January 2009): 3-6.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Norman Vasu: “Countering Terrorism: Multiculturalism in Singapore”. Connections: The Quarterly Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Spring 2007): 143-155.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Delegitimizing Global Jihadi Ideology in Southeast Asia”. Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 27, No. 3 (2005): 343-69.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Southeast Asian Approach to Counter-Terrorism: Learning from Indonesia and Malaysia”. The Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Summer 2005): 27-47.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. Review of Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror, by Zachary Abuza in Contemporary Southeast Asia (2005): 175-8.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. Review of Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, by John A. Nagl. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 33, No. 1 (2005): 146-147.
- Tan, See Seng, and Kumar Ramakrishna. 2004. “Interstate and Intrastate Dynamics in Southeast Asia’s War on Terror.” The SAIS Review of International Affairs 24: 91–105.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Tan See Seng. “Interstate and Intrastate Dynamics in Southeast Asia’s War on Terror”. SAIS Review, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 91-105.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Anatomy of a Collapse: Explaining the Malayan Communist Mass Surrenders of 1958”. War & Society, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2003): 109-133.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The War Against Terror: A Perspective from Singapore”. Heartland: Eurasian Review of Geopolitics, Vol. 9 (2003): 25-32
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. ‘“Bribing the Reds to Give Up’: Rewards Policy in the Malayan Emergency”, War in History, Vol. 9, No. 3 (2002): 332-353.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Barry Desker: “Forging an Indirect Strategy in Southeast Asia”. The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Spring 2002): 161-76.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Telling the Simple People the Truth: The Role of Strategic Propaganda in the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 75, Part 1 (2002): 49-68.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. Review of Defence and Decolonisation in Southeast Asia: Britain, Malaya and Singapore 1941-68, by Karl Hack, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 29, No.3 (2001): 155-156.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. ‘“Transmogrifying Malaya”: The Impact of Sir Gerald Templer”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1 (2001): 79-92.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Making of a Malayan Propagandist: The Communists, the British and C.C. Too”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 73, Part 1, No 278 (2000): 67-90.
Edited Books / Special Issues
- Remembering S R Nathan: A Mentor for All Seasons (with Mushahid Ali), Eds. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2017
- Tan, Andrew and Kumar Ramakrishna (eds.). The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia (with Tan See Seng), Eds. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co, 2002
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Tan, Andrew (eds.) The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Content, Credibility and Context: Propaganda, Government Surrender Policy and the Malayan Communist Terrorist Mass Surrenders of 1958”. In The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945-65, edited by Richard J. Aldrich, Gary Rawnsley and Ming-Yeh Rawnsley, 242-266. London: Frank Cass, 2000.
Chapters in Edited Books
- “Extremist Islamism and Extremist Identitarianism” in Jolene Jerard and Amanda Huan, ed.,, Faith, Identity, Cohesion: Building a Better Future. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2020, pp. 235-240
- “The ‘East Asia Wilayah’ of ISIS and the Marawi City Siege: A Long Time in the Making” in Rommel C. Banlaoi, ed., The Marawi Siege and Its Aftermath: The Continuing Terrorist Threats. United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, pp. 5-46, Chapter 1
- “The Evolving ISIS Threat to Southeast Asia” in Shruti Pandalai, Combating Terrorism: Evolving Asian Perspectives. New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2019, pp. 211-266
- “The 4M Strategy of Combating Violent Extremism: An Analysis” in Majeed Khader, Neo Loo Seng, Jethro Tan, Damien D Cheong & Jeffery Chin (Eds.), Learning from Violent Extremist Attacks: Behavioural Sciences Insights for Practitioners and Policymakers. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2019, 163-174
- “Unpacking the ISIS Threat: The Violent Potentials of Religious Fundamentalism” in Quek Tze-Ming and Philip E. Satterthwaite (eds.), Faith in an Age of Terror. Singapore: Singapore: Armour Publishing, 2017, pp. 1-28
- “ASEAN’s Efforts to Combat Terrorism in the Age of ISIS” in Tommy Koh, Sharon Li-Lian Seah, Li Lin Chang (eds.), 50 Years of ASEAN and Singapore. Singapore: Singapore: World Scientific, 2017, 2017, pp. 119-127
- “The Threat of Terrorism and Extremism: A Matter of ‘When’, and Not ‘If’” in Daljit Singh and Malcolm Cook (eds.), Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute, 2017, pp. 335-250
- “CENS and the Whole-of-Government Approach” in Alan Cheong (ed.), Forward Engagement: RSIS as a Think Tank of International Studies and Security in the Asia-Pacific. Singapore: World Scientific, 2017, 2017, pp. 27-33
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Radicalization into Violent Extremism: A New Synthesis?" - State, Society and National Security: Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century, edited by Shashi Jayakumar (Singapore, Chapter 10, page 151-166, May 2016)
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Towards a Comprehensive Approach to Combating Violent Extremist Ideology in the Digital Space: The Counter-Ideological Response (CIR) Model" - Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era, edited by Majeed Khader, Loo Seng Neo, Gabriel Ong, Eunice Tan Mingyi and Jeffery Chin, Home Team Behavioural Sciences Centre, Ministry of Home Affairs, Singapore (Chapter 13, page 260-282, April 2016)
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “‘The Police Must be Part of the People and the People Part of the Police’: Policing in the Malayan Emergency (1948-60).” In Policing Insurgencies: Cops as Counterinsurgents, edited by C. Christine Fair and Sumit Ganguly, 46-82. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Ramakrishna, Kumar. "The "Three Rings" of Terrorist Rehabilitation and Counter-Ideological Work in Singapore: A Decade On." In Prisons, Terrorism and Extremism: Critical Issues in Management, Redicalisation and Reform,edited by Andrew Silke, 197-213. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Educating People to Counterterrorism: ‘Cognitive Immunization’ against Violent Extremism in Indonesia.” In Countering Terrorism: Psycho-Social Strategies, edited by Updesh Kumar and Manas K. Mandal, 331-354. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2012.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Understanding ‘Muscular Secularism’ in Singapore”, in Asian Transnational Security Challenges: Emerging Trends, Regional Visions, edited by Caroline Ziemke-Dickens and Julian Droogan, 109-121. Sydney: The Council for Asian Transnational Threat Research (CATR), Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrroism (PICT), Macquarie University, 2010.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Governmental responses to Extremism in Southeast Asia: ‘Hard’ versus ‘Soft’ Approaches” in Conflict, Community, and Criminality in Southeast Asia and Australia: Assessments from the Field, edited by Arnaud De Borchgrave, Thomas Sanderson and David Gordon, 31-36. Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The (Psychic) Roots of Religious Violence in South and Southeast Asia.” In Religion and Conflict in South and Southeast Asia : Disrupting Violence,edited by Linell E. Cady and Sheldon W. Simon, 122-134. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “It’s the Story, Stupid: Neutralizing Radical Islamism in the Southeast Asia Theatre” in The Ideological War on Terror: Worldwide Strategies for Counter-Terrorism, edited by Anne Aldis and Graeme Herd, 128-142. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Making of the Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist.” In Teaching Terror: Strategic and Tactical Learning in the Terrorist World, edited by by James J.F. Forest, 223-260. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Madrassas, Pesantrens, and the Impact of Education on Support for Radicalism and Terrorism.” In "In the Same Light as Slavery": Building a Global Antiterrorist Consensus, edited by Joseph McMillan,129-150. Washington D.C.: NDU Press, 2006.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Malayan Rebellion 1948-60.” In Revolutionary Movements in World History, from 1750 to the Present, edited by James V. DeFronzo, 551-560. Santa Barbara and Oxford: ABC-Clio, 2006.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Indoctrination Processes within Jemaah Islamiyah.” In The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training, and Root Causes, Volume II: Training, edited by James J.F. Forest, 211-223. Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2006.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Coping with Terrorism the ‘Propaganda-Minded’ Way: Lessons from 1950s Malaya.” In International Terrorism: New Zealand Perspectives edited by James Veitch. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington Institute of Policy Studies, 2005.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The ‘Root Causes’ of Terrorism: New Approaches to an Old Problem.” In International Terrorism: New Zealand Perspectivesedited by James Veitch. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington Institute of Policy Studies, 2005.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “A Singapore Perspective on East Asian Security.” In Changing Security Dynamic in Eastern Asia: Focus on Japanedited by N.S. Sisodia and G.V.C. Naidu, 391-400. New Delhi: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 2005.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Countering Radical Islam in Southeast Asia — The Need to Address the Functional and Ideological ‘Enabling Environment’.” In Terrorism and Transnational Violence in Southeast Asia: Challenges to State and Regional Stability edited by Paul J. Smith, 145-168. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Ideological and Political Dimensions.” In Southeast Asian Affairs 2004, edited by Daljit Singh and Chin Kin Wah, 54-60. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "US Strategy in Southeast Asia: Counter-Terrorist or Counter-Terrorism?” in After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia, edited by Kumar Ramakrishna and See Seng Tan, 323-324. Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Tan, See Seng. “Is Southeast Asia a ‘Terrorist Haven’?” in After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia, edited by Kumar Ramakrishna and See Seng Tan, 1-38. Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Making Malaya Safe for Decolonization: The Rural Chinese Factor in the Counterinsurgency Campaign.” In The Transformation of Southeast Asia: International Perspectives on Decolonization, edited by Marc Frey, Ronald W. Pruessen, and Tan Tai Yong, 161-179. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2003.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Singapore and the War on Terror: The Need for an Indirect Approach.” In Singapore Perspectives 2003, edited by Yap Mui Teng, 11-29. Singapore, Eastern Universities Press, 2003.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar and Andrew Tan. " Countering the New Terrorism of Al Qaeda without Generating Civilisational Conflict: The Need For an Indirect Strategy." In The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies, edited by Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna, 3-29. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Countering the New Terrorism of Al Qaeda without Generating Civilisational Conflict: The Need For an Indirect Strategy." In The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies, edited by Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna, 207-232. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "The US Foreign Policy of Praetorian Unilateralism and the Implications for Southeast Asia”. In September 11 and Political Freedoms: Asian Perspectives, edited by Uwe Johannen et al, 116-141. Singapore: Select Publishing, 2002.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Countering the New Terrorism of Al Qaeda Without Generating Civilizational Conflict: The Need for an Indirect Strategy”. In The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies, edited by Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna, 207-232. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Tan, Andrew. “The New Terrorism: Diagnosis and Prescriptions”. In The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies, edited. by Andrew Tan and Kumar Ramakrishna, 3-29. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002.
- “When extremists and white supremacists infiltrate security forces”, TODAY, 19 August 2020
- “War On COVID-19: More Than One Front – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 16 April 2020
- “On Being a Christian Scholar in a Fallen World: A Personal Reflection”, Ethos Institute for Public Christianity , 5 August 2019
- “The Advent of ‘CyWar’: Are We Ready? – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 24 January 2019
- “Children and Family Terrorism”, Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 13 July 2018
- “Operation Coldstore and the perils of academic misinformation”, The Straits Times, 4 April 2018
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Disinformation and fake news: Old wine in new bottles", The Straits Times, 28 March 2018
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "What the taped execution of prisoners by a Singapore militant tells us", TODAY, 28 January 2018
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Winning the battle of memes", New Straits Times, 1 November 2017. https://technu.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2017/11/297625/winning-battle-memes
- Cheong, Damien and Ramakrishna, Kumar: "Making a CASE for enhancing security of infrastructure", TODAY Weekend, 13 October 2017
- Ramakrishna, Kumar - "The 4M way to fight violent extremism", TODAY Weekend, 7 September 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Getting S’poreans to report radicalisation of loved ones", TODAY Commentary , 14 June 2017 and 23 June 2017
- Ramakrishna, Kumar and Cheong, Damien "Why reporting every security incident matters," TODAY Commentary, 27 April 2017.
Ramakrishna, Kumar and Neubronner, Stephanie - "Engaging youth as a bulwark against ISIS extremism", The Straits Times, 22 April 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar and Neubronner, Stephanie - "To make headway in fight against IS, engage youth", Today Commentary, 21 April 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar and Neubronner, Stephanie - "Engaging Youth As A Bulwark Against ISIS Extremism – Analysis", Eurasia Review, 10 April 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar "Lessons in attacks for Singapore - When everyday items become terror weapons", TODAY, 30 March 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar "Why ‘radical Islamic terrorism’ is the wrong phrase", TODAY, 11 February 2017
Ramakrishna, Kumar and Teck Boon, Tan - "September 11, 2016 – Remembering 9/11: Are We Any Safer Today? – Analysis", Eurasia Review, 11 September 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar "There’s no such thing as non-violent extremism", TODAY, 18 August 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar "From radicalism to extremism: The case of Zulfikar Mohamad Shariff", TODAY, 1 August 2016
Bilveer Singh and Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Islamic State’s Wilayah Philippines: Implications For Southeast Asia – Analysis", Eurasia Review, 22 July 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Singapore’s ISA Arrests: The Domestic Context In Bangladesh – Analysis", Eurasia Review, 13 May 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar "The Bangladesh factor behind recent ISA arrests", The Straits Times, 11 May 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Singapore And The ISB Arrests: The Transnational Terrorist ‘Insider Threat’ – Analysis", Eurasia Review, 6 May 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar "Unity is the best defence against fundamentalist tendencies", TODAY, 12 February 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar "Use Jakarta attacks as impetus to ramp up fight against terror", TODAY, 25 January 2016
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "If Singapore was ruled by Barisan Sosialis", TODAY Commentary, 10 December 2015
Ramakrishna, Kumar - "Chin Peng: A Fanatic but no hero", TODAY Commentary, 30 September 2015
- Kumar Ramakrishna, “ISIS: how a ‘direct’ strategy can ensure its defeat, Part 2”, The Strategist (Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 21 May 2015), http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/isis-how-a-direct-strategy-can-ensure-its-defeat-part-2/.
- Kumar Ramakrishna, “ISIS: its indirect strategy explained, Part 1”, The Strategist (Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 20 May 2015), http://www.aspistrategist.org.au/isis-its-indirect-strategy-explained-part-1/.
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Lim Chin Siong and that Beauty World Speech: A Closer Look." IPS Commons, June 04, 2014. Accessed June 04, 2014. http://www.ipscommons.sg/index.php/categories/featured/177-lim-chin-siong-and-that-beauty-world-speech-a-closer-look
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. "Revising the Revisionists: Operation Coldstore in History." IPS Commons, February 19, 2014. Accessed June 04, 2014. http://www.ipscommons.sg/index.php/categories/politics/159-revising-the-revisionists-operation-coldstore-in-history
- Ramakrishna, Kumar. “Chin Peng: A Fanatic But No Hero”. Today, September 30, 2013.Accessed June 07, 2014. http://www.todayonline.com/singapore/chin-peng-fanatic-no-hero?page=1
Ramakrishna, Kumar. “The Real Problem Isn’t Ideology, It’s Human Nature”, Today, September 10, 2013. Accessed June 07, 2014.
- “Ramakrishna, Kumar, and Jennifer Yang Hui. “Southeast Asia’s War on Terror”. Asian Conflicts Reports Issue 1, January 2009.” (with Jennifer Yang Hui), Asian Conflicts Reports, 31 January 2009
Last updated on 06/04/2021