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NTS Bulletin

NTS Bulletin January 2011 (Issue 2)

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Issues: Note: Please click on the respective titles or headers for the full report.

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Asia Security Initiative Blog

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MAIN HIGHLIGHT

Post-election Violence

There were expectations that the Ivory Coast presidential election in November 2010 would put an end to the North-South divide that had emerged in the country since the 2002 civil war. Instead, the election exacerbated tensions and aroused concerns of another outbreak of civil war and even genocide. The power struggle between the incumbent, Laurent Gbagbo, and opposition leader, Alassane Ouattara, has now escalated into violent clashes between the respective supporters of the two political camps. The violence has caused 173 deaths and thousands of Ivorians to flee to neighbouring countries for fear of the situation escalating to a full-scale conflict. Leaders of West African countries are trying to mediate the situation and broker a peaceful settlement. In spite of this, the impasse continues.

The clash in the Ivory Coast is not an isolated case. Back in 2008, massive violence unfolded in Kenya after a disputed election in late 2007, causing fear of an outbreak of mass atrocities. In Asia, there have also been similar examples. Clashes between Myanmar government troops and ethnic Karen insurgents after the historic election in November 2010 led to the outflow of 10,000 refugees to neighbouring Thailand. In January 2010, Sri Lanka had its most violent election in a decade, with six deaths and hundreds of injuries. These incidents demonstrate that post-election violence is not uncommon in the developing South.

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HUMAN TRAFFICKING

News & Commentaries

Selected Publications

This article discusses the link between conflicts and an increase in human trafficking, through an analysis of the consequences of conflict. The article attempts to give a global overview and contribute through its analysis to anti-trafficking measures.

The article is a critique of Australia’s policies on asylum, arguing that they do not address the root causes of the problem, and are therefore likely only to be short-term fixes. It focuses on the arrival of asylum seekers by boat and its potential costs, both financial and political. The paper recommends that the government avoids enacting more border enforcement, and instead pays more attention to the other elements of a comprehensive approach to the challenge of boat arrivals.

Events & Announcements

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INTERNAL AND CROSS-BORDER CONFLICT

News & Commentaries

Selected Publications

The paper looks at the repatriation of Sudanese refugees amid political upheaval, a fluctuating security situation and a demanding economic environment. It seeks to find out how the repatriation is carried out and how people perceive the current process. It questions the underlying assumption that refugees are no longer a concern to the international community once they return to their home country.

This report studies women’s roles in peacebuilding, post-conflict reconstruction and economic development. It argues that women’s participation is crucial to building lasting peace and security. Despite some progress in protecting women and their interests, women are still under-represented in social and political life, and their needs often overlooked in conflict settlement. A gender-balanced approach in civilian protection amid conflict and in post-conflict rebuilding is needed.

This report analyses the possible security scenarios in Southern Sudan after the referendum for independence. It reviews how the situation has evolved to arrive at the current stage and what the catalysts were for the referendum to be held. It also explores the implications of Southern Sudan’s independence for the various stakeholders concerned. For the ruling National Congress Party, the prospect of an independent Southern Sudan will increase its rivalry with opposition parties in Khartoum.

Events and Announcements

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MIGRATION

News & Commentaries

Selected Publications

The article studies the inter-relationships and interactions between migrant populations, using case analysis of US and UK neighbourhoods. It is a critique of the view that trust is lower when we are surrounded by people who are different from ourselves. The article argues that residential segregation rather than diversity leads to lower levels of trust. The article examines the theoretical and measurement differences between segregation and diversity.

The article is an analysis of the gap in the international refugee regime between the rights it promises and the responsibility it assigns to make those rights a reality. This article describes the refugee regime’s present inability to cope with refugee flows, proposing as a partial solution an international, rather than a territorial, paradigm of duty.

The article is an analysis of Australia’s obligations under the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights towards asylum seekers. The article examines asylum seekers caught by interception and the care arrangements Australia has in place in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Events & Announcements

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TRANSNATIONAL CRIME

News & Commentaries

Selected Publications

This study examines the magnitude of illicit financial flows from India, analysing the drivers and dynamics of these flows in the context of far-ranging reform. In the process, it represents perhaps the most comprehensive study on the subject matter, both in terms of the range of issues involved and the time span covered. At its heart is a dynamic simulation model which seeks to capture the interaction of economic, structural and governance issues that underlie the generation and cross-border transfer of illicit capital.

The UNODC’s latest report on drugs in Southeast Asia covers Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand. The report points to rising levels of opium poppy cultivation across all three countries. This has occurred largely as a result of two combined factors: more area under cultivation and higher yields.

This toolkit is intended to assist those working to prevent and combat the smuggling of migrants. It provides an overview of the immense and multifaceted task of combating the smuggling of migrants. Through the stand-alone tools, it provides guidance on specific aspects of responding to the smuggling of migrants. Each tool has been structured so that it can be consulted independently of the others. Cross-references have been provided throughout to direct users to other sections that may be relevant. Where possible, websites are indicated where users can either consult the complete text of documents referred to or find further information on a given topic.

This study, which looks at the generic substitution of medicines finds an alarming level of confusion between generic and counterfeit drugs, and raises fears that this may affect adherence to therapy. The study looks at the perceptions of Pakistani immigrants in Norway when their brand name medicine was substituted with a cheaper generic product by their pharmacist. The results revealed a trend towards reduced adherence to therapy – often in the form of forgetting to take medicines or taking a drug ‘holiday’ – among those who had accepted a generic alternative. The study reveals that patients are reluctant to use generics in Pakistan because generic manufacturers are not required to provide bioequivalence data and there is a ‘significant’ market in counterfeit medicines in the country.

Events & Announcements

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WATER SECURITY

News & Commentaries

Selected Publications

Women and marginalised populations often encounter adversity associated with access, planning and management of water and sanitation (WatSan) resources in rural India. The Government of India (GOI) has shifted to decentralised, participatory WatSan systems and developed policies to include women and marginalised populations from rural areas in WatSan management. Both the GOI and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) claim decentralised, participatory programmes lead to women’s empowerment and gender equality. Through separate case studies, this paper reviews WatSan programmes started by two NGOs in different villages in India. Mixed methods are used to evaluate empowerment and gender equality in villages related and unrelated to WatSan programmes.

This atlas is a visual account of Africa’s endowment and use of water resources, revealed through maps, satellite images, graphics and photos. It describes and analyses Africa’s water issues through the use of case studies and gathers information about the role of water in Africa’s economy and development, health, food security, transboundary cooperation, capacity building and environmental change.

This report puts forth recommendations to address the global recession of glaciers due to a warming climate. It calls for accelerating the research, monitoring and modelling of glaciers, snow and their role in water supplies. More importantly, it highlights the vulnerability and exposure of people dependent on rivers to floods, droughts and eventually shortages as a result of changes in the melting and freezing cycles linked with climate change and other pollution impacts.

Scientists have discovered that household sewage has far more potential as an alternative energy source than was previously thought. In this study, a new methodology of preparing samples for measuring the internal chemical energy of wastewater was developed. An analysis was also made. The findings reveal that the estimated potential energy of wastewater is almost 20 per cent and this could spur efforts to extract methane, hydrogen and other fuels from this vast and untapped resource.

In this study, researcher Subrata Dasgupta of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, in Kolkata, India, and his colleagues carried out a study of various wastewater filtration systems for kitchen wastewater and found that even the most poorly performing system can produce water clean enough for horticultural or agricultural use.

Events & Announcements

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You are free to publish this material in its entirety or only in part in your newspapers, wire services, internet-based information networks and newsletters and you are also free to use the information in your radio-TV discussions or as a basis for discussion in different fora. We would, however, appreciate it if you could let us know when and where the publication was used.

About the Centre:

The Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies was inaugurated by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretary-General Dr Surin Pitsuwan in May 2008. The Centre maintains research in the fields of Food Security, Climate Change, Energy Security, Health Security as well as Internal and Cross-Border Conflict. It produces policy-relevant analyses aimed at furthering awareness and building capacity to address NTS issues and challenges in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The Centre also provides a platform for scholars and policymakers within and outside Asia to discuss and analyse NTS issues in the region.

In 2009, the Centre was chosen by the MacArthur Foundation as a lead institution for the MacArthur Asia Security Initiative, to develop policy research capacity and recommend policies on the critical security challenges facing the Asia-Pacific.

The Centre is also a founding member and the Secretariat for the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies in Asia (NTS-Asia). More information on the Centre can be found at www.rsis.edu.sg/nts


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